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Friday, September 11, 2015

September is Peripheral Artery Disease Awareness Month: Know the Facts

Do you know that peripheral artery disease (PAD) is one of the most widespread chronic diseases and it currently afflicts almost 20 million U.S. citizens? September is PAD Awareness Month, a time to create awareness about this disease and learn the facts so that you can take the necessary steps to prevent it and/or keep it under control.

The information in this blog was published by the Center for Disease Control (CDC). We are sharing this fact sheet with our readers because it contains important information to help you learn more about PAD.

Peripheral Arterial Disease (PAD) Fact Sheet

Peripheral Arterial Disease (PAD) in the Legs or lower extremities is the narrowing or blockage of the vessels that carry blood from the heart to the legs. It is primarily caused by the buildup of fatty plaque in the arteries, which is called atherosclerosis. PAD can occur in any blood vessel, but it is more common in the legs than the arms.

Prevalence of PAD (%) by Age Group (years)
The chart reflects the percentage of prevalence of PAD in men and women by age group and how it increases with age.







Risk Factors for PAD

High blood pressure
Smoking
Atherosclerosis
Diabetes
High cholesterol
Older than age 60



A normal artery is shown on the left with no blockage. The right artery shows how it's been narrowed by plaque (atherosclerosis), causing decreased blood flow, and PAD.Men and woman are equally affected by PAD; however, black race/ethnicity is associated with an increased risk of PAD. People of Hispanic origin may have similar to slightly higher rates of PAD compared to non-Hispanic whites. Approximately 8 million people in the United States have PAD, including 12-20% of individuals older than age 60. General population awareness of PAD is estimated at 25%, based on prior studies.

Other clinical conditions and disorders of arteries can mimic the symptoms of PAD, and not all PAD is due to atherosclerosis.3-4



Signs and Symptoms of PAD

The classic symptom of PAD is pain in the legs with exertion such as walking, which is relieved by resting. However, up to 40% of individuals with PAD have no leg pain. Symptoms of pain, ache, or cramp with walking (claudication) can occur in the buttock, hip, thigh, or calf.3

Physical signs in the leg that may indicate peripheral arterial disease include muscle atrophy, hair loss, smooth shiny skin, skin that is cool to the touch especially if accompanied by pain while walking (which is relieved by stopping walking), decreased or absent pulses in the feet, non-healing ulcers or sores in the legs or feet, and cold or numb toes.

Preventing PAD
  • Physical activity and exercise are important for preventing PAD and for improving symptoms of PAD.
  • Avoid use of tobacco—smoking increases the risk of PAD by 2-6 times and it worsens the symptoms of PAD.
  • Control high blood pressure, cholesterol, and diabetes.
  • Supervised exercise training programs can improve and prolong walking distance in individuals with PAD.

Diagnosis and Treatment of PAD

In patients with symptoms of PAD, the ankle-brachial index (ABI) is a non-invasive test that measures the blood pressure in the ankles and compares it with the blood pressure in the arms at rest and after exercise. Imaging tests such as ultrasound, magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), and computed tomographic (CT) angiography can provide additional information in diagnosing PAD.2-4

Individuals with PAD are at risk for developing coronary artery disease and cerebrovascular disease, which could lead to a heart attack or stroke. Aspirin or other similar anti-platelet medications may prevent the development of serious complications from PAD and associated atherosclerosis.
All efforts must be made to stop smoking.Severe cases may require surgery to bypass blocked arteries.

References
Allison MA, Ho E, Denenberg JO, et al. Ethnic-specific prevalence of peripheral arterial disease in the United States. 2007 American Journal of Preventive Medicine 2007;32:328-333.
Roger VL, Go AS, Lloyd-Jones DM, et. al. Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics 2011 Update: A Report From the American Heart Association. Circulation 2011;123:e18-e209.
Creager MA, Loscalzo J. Vascular Diseases of the Extremities. In: Fauci AS, Braunwald E, Kasper DL, et al., eds. Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine. 17e ed. New York: McGraw Hill, 2008.
Rooke TW, Wennberg PW. Diagnosis and Management of Diseases of the Peripheral Arteries and Veins. In: Walsh RA, Simon DI, Hoit BD, et al., eds.: Hurst’s The Heart. 12e ed. New York: McGraw Hill, 2007.
Hirsch AT, Haskal ZJ, Hertzer NR, et al. ACC/AHA 2005 Practice guidelines for the management of patients withi peripheral arterial disease (lower extremity, renal, mesenteric, and abdominal aortic): Circulation. 2006;113:e463-654.

Wednesday, September 9, 2015

SFVA Now Performs Minimally Invasive Balloon Kyphoplasty to Repair Spinal Fractures in Our Unique, In-office State-of-the-Art Operating Suite


If you have osteoporosis or have a history of metastatic cancer in the bones and you suddenly develop back pain or your back pain worsens, you could be experiencing a spinal fracture and should seek medical attention immediately. Very often spinal fractures go diagnosed and untreated because patients are not aware of the symptoms. Some spinal fractures can be very painful, yet others are often mild so you might not be aware that you have one.

Once you’ve had a medical consultation, diagnostic studies such as x-ray or MRI are done to determine whether your bones are weakening, osteoporosis, or if there is a tumor present in the vertebra and a fracture is seen. A minimally invasive treatment called Kyphon Balloon Kyphoplasty can be performed to repair the fracture by using small balloons to gently elevate the fractured vertebra, returning it back to its normal position, relieving your pain.

Until recently, Balloon Kyphoplasty was mostly performed in a hospital setting however, our board certified, interventional radiologists Dr. William Julien and Dr. Curtis Anderson now perform the procedure in our state-of-the art, in-office operating suite where they have the latest medical equipment available for optimal results. During the procedure the doctors use X-ray guidance to insert a small metal rod through a tiny opening in the skin and into the affected vertebra. Next, a small balloon is inserted through the tube and into the bone, where it is inflated to create a cavity and restore the height of the vertebra. The balloon is then removed and medical-grade bone cement is injected into the cavity in the bone to stabilize and strengthen it. Patients benefit by a shorter surgical and recovery time and return home the same day. Long-term pain relief occurs almost immediately, within hours of the procedure as well as improvement of mobility and a better quality of life.


                        The video below is an animation of a Kyphon Balloon Kyphoplasty
                                           procedure provided to us by Medtronic


                                       video

If you have a spinal fracture as a result of osteoporosis or a metastatic bone tumor and you think you might be a candidate for Balloon Kyphoplasty speak to one of our interventional radiologists at South Florida Vascular Associates today.